Western Mail, 1 December 1914
In the first phase of the war, in accordance with the Schlieffen Plan, German and Austrian forces advanced into Russian territory to hold up the Russian army's possible advance, and to delay its mobilisation as much as possible. Russian forces instead advanced into the Carpathian Mountains and also into Eastern Prussia as far as Tannenberg. The cartoon refers to the German army's failure in Poland - then part of the Russian Empire - with Mother Russia chastising the German and Austrian invaders in her homely kitchen. Germany soon sent two new generals - Paul von Hindenburg (1847-1934) and his deputy Erich Ludendorff (1865-1937) - who held and comprehensively defeated Russian forces at the Masurian Lakes in 1915, inflicting very heavy losses. They continued to savage Russian armies until their transfer to the Western Front in 1916. Hindenburg later became President of Germany (1928-1934) and Ludendorff was an early patron of Adolf Hitler. Hindenburg was also persuaded to make Hitler Chancellor of Germany early in 1933.
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